hellenization definition judaism

(noun) Dictionary ! All Rights Reserved. (North America) Alternative spelling of Hellenisation. What is the definition of Hellenization? If Hellenization had pushed much further into Asia and hevely cemented itself. Indeed, some of the Jews who fought on the side of the Maccabees were idol worshippers. The extreme tactics employed by the Hasmoneans in their struggle with Hellenizing Jews, whose children they forcibly circumcised, indicate the inroads that Hellenism had already made. In any event, the Maccabees soon reached a modus vivendi with Hellenism: thus, Jonathan (died 143/142 bce), according to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (c. 38–c. As Hellenism pene­trated each new region, an amalgamation of the Hellenistic with the native took place, and this phenomenon resulted in the many different manifestations of Hellenistic culture observable in the Near East over many centuries. Hellenization of members of the Jewish elite included names, clothes but other customs were adapted by the rabbis and elements that violated the halakha and midrash were prohibited. The chief support for the Pharisees came from the lower classes, whether in the country or in the city. ASSIDEANS (the Anglicized form, derived through the Greek, of the Hebrew Hasidim, " the pious"), the name of a party or sect which stood out against the Hellenization of the Jews in the 2nd century B.C. People from the surrounding areas, streaming into the cities, quickly gained the legal and economic advantages afforded by citizenship in the polis-‑exemption from certain customs and duties and participation in the municipal government. The ready acceptance of Greek by Egyptian Jews is evidenced by the surviving synagogue inscriptions from Ptolemaic Egypt, all of which are in Greek. Hellenization of members of the Jewish elite included names, clothes but other customs were adapted by the rabbis and elements that violated the halakha and midrash were prohibited. en.wiktionary.org (North America) Alternative spelling of Hellenisation. It was the cause of the Maccabean Revolts, the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70, and the martyrdom of many Christians. The Jewish, and later Christian, insistence on keeping their religion pure amused and sometimes angered the Greeks. 45 ce), and they never use any Greek philosophical terms; the only Greek author whom they name is Homer. For the working preacher, this book gives an excellent review of the topic and how it may inform exegesis of the N.T. It was a notable trait of ancient Greek civilization, an approach to other cultures that was not merely invasive or dominant but transformative. Jewish scribes writing in Hebrew were adopting Greek literary forms, and they were borrowing concepts that were not commonly known to Jews before Hellenization. Scholars have revised the conception of a “normative” Pharisaic Judaism dominant in Palestine and a deviant Judaism dominant in the Diaspora. The process and the product of the canonization of the Bible became the basis for a varied tradition of interpretation. The antipathy was reciprocated, for in the same passage in the Babylonian Talmud (the annotations and interpretations of the Oral Law compiled by Babylonian Jewish scholars in the 5th century ce) are added the words, “Greater is the hatred wherewith the ʿamme ha-aretz hate the scholar than the hatred wherewith the heathens hate Israel.” That there was social mobility, however, is clear from the Talmudic dictum, “Heed the sons of the ʿamme ha-aretz, for they will be the living source of the Torah.”. The wealthiest of the priests were the members of the Oniad family, who held the hereditary office of high priest until they were replaced by the Hasmoneans; the Temple that they supervised also functioned as a bank, where the wealth of the Temple was stored and where private individuals also deposited their money. Most interestingly, the native Near Easterners gravitated as well to the Hellenic arts and sciences and soon took the lead in such disciplines as literature and philosophy. See Hellenism and Hellenization and Maccabean Revolt and Hasmonean Rule. The rabbis never mention the Greek philosophers Plato (428/427–348/347 bce) and Aristotle (384–322 bce) or the Hellenistic Jewish philosopher Philo Judaeus (c. 15 bce–c. Hellenism was a synthesis of Greek (Hellenic) culture with the native cultures of the Near East. Copy to clipboard; Details / edit; wiki. Jewish Push Against "Hellenization" The rule of John Hyrcanus in 134 BC begins a backlash against "Hellenization." See more. In the Greek cities, the upper classes of theNear East were acculturated through the schools and other institu­tions of the Hellenistic world. Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC. Finally, Hellenization is used with reference to Judea, Persia, etc. The eagerness of the Pharisees to win converts is attested in The Gospel According to Matthew (23:15), which states that the Pharisees would “traverse sea and land to make a single proselyte.” To be sure, some of the proselytes, according to Josephus, did return to their pagan ways, but the majority apparently remained true to their new religion. Hellenization was the spread of Greek culture and the assimilation into Greek culture of non-Greek peoples. The Turks still invade and conquer Anatolia, but they become staunchly Orthodox, and a period of semi-Hellenization occurs where an independent Hellenic-Turkic Anatolian realm comes into being. Egypt was the last important survivor of the political system which had developed as a consequence both of the victories of Alexander and of his premature death. helenisasi. Greek influence reached its peak under King Herod I of Judaea (reigned 37–4 bce), who built a Greek theatre, amphitheatre, and hippodrome in or near Jerusalem. The mid-3rd century-bce Zenon papyri, which contain the correspondence of the business manager of a high Ptolemaic official, present a picture of a wealthy Jew, Tobiah, who through commercial contact with the Ptolemies acquired a veneer of Hellenism, to judge at least from the pagan and religious expressions in his Greek letters. to indicate the penetration of elements of Greek civilization into territories which, though subject to Greco-Macedonian rule for a certain period of time, preserved their national culture with conspicuous success. Outside the pale of Judaism in most, though not all, respects were the Samaritans, who, like the Sadducees, refused to recognize the validity of the Oral Law; in fact, the break between the Sadducees and the Samaritans did not occur until the conquest of Shechem by John Hyrcanus (128 bce). The Near East as a whole, and Palestine and its Jewish residents more particularly, first came under Aegean influence in the fourteenth century BCE. Alexander the Great and Hellenization by Larry R Thornton, ThD Professor, Calvary Baptist Theological Seminary Historians have differed in their presentations and evaluations of Alex­ ander the Great and his relation to Hellenism. The Greek city, known as the polis, was the vehicle for the assimilation and Hellenization of the indigenous peoples of the Near East. It is not until the end of the 4th century, however, that Jews are first mentioned by Greek writers, who praise them as brave, self-disciplined, and philosophical. Indeed, it was not the Greeks them­selves, but the Macedonians, whose civilization was derivative from that of the true Hellenes, who were mainly responsible for spreading Greek culture to the Near East. Hellenization of Judaism The Hellenization of the Jews culminated, after the initial Jewish-Roman Wars (66–73 AD), with the Bar Kochba revolt led by Simon bar Kokhba. Josephus held that the Pharisees and the other Jewish parties were philosophical schools, and some modern scholars have argued that the groupings were primarily along economic and social lines; but the chief distinctions among them were religious and go back well before the Maccabean revolt. When in 198 Palestine was conquered by King Antiochus III (reigned 223–187 bce) of the Syrian Seleucid dynasty, the Jews were treated even more liberally, being granted a charter to govern themselves by their own constitution—namely, the Torah. By the beginning of the 2nd century, the influence of the Hellenistic Age in Judaea was quite strong; indeed, it has been argued that, if the Seleucids had not forcibly intervened in Jewish affairs, Judaean Judaism would have become even more syncretistic than Alexandrian Judaism. As high priest from 175 to 172, Jason established Jerusalem as a Greek city, with Greek educational institutions. He attacked and overthrew the Ptolmaic Empire in Egypt, thus Judea came under Seleucid control. In the first place, as many as 2,500 to 3,000 words of Greek origin are found in the Talmudic corpus, and they supply important terms in the fields of law, government, science, religion, technology, and everyday life, especially in the popular sermons preached by the rabbis. ‘Alexander had paved the way, and so had the Hellenization of most Early Judaism.’ ‘A few examples will have to suffice to explain how the Hellenization of the known world affected Early Judaism.’ The Hellenistic period begins formally with the arrival of Alex­ander the Great in the Near East in 334BCE, but this date is not the beginning of Greek influence in the region. With tragic wit, the Jews named him Epimanes, or "the madman," when it became apparent that his policies were violently anti-Jewish. He may have spent some time in Palestine dealing with a revolt in Samaria, and it is possible that he met then with Jewish leaders. After being conquered by Alexander the Great (332 bce), Palestine became part of the Hellenistic kingdom of Ptolemaic Egypt, the policy of which was to permit the Jews considerable cultural and religious freedom. Answer: Hellenism is the term used to describe the influence of Greek culture on the peoples the Greek and Roman Empires conquered or interacted with. In their exegesis and interpretation of this oral tradition, particularly under the rabbi Hillel (1st century bce–1st century ce), the Pharisees were flexible, and their regard for the public won them considerable support. Yet the indigenous peoples did not simply absorb the Hellenic and the Hellenistic; they redefined and reinterpreted their own traditional cultures in light of the “modern” civilization in which they now found themselves. Talk either Hebrew or Greek.” The synagogues of the period are modeled after Hellenistic-Roman basilicas, with inscriptions in Greek and even pagan motifs. Contact between Greeks and Semites goes back to Minoan and Mycenaean times and is reflected in certain terms used by Homer and other early Greek authors. The adoption of Greek ways and speech as happened in the case of Jews living in the Diaspora. ︎ 215 ︎ r/AlternateHistory ︎ 25 comments ︎ u/Mjhwl05 ︎ Aug 08 ︎ report. Antiochus Epiphanes was also determined to push Hellenization.We learn from 1 Maccabees what the Jews faced and what they thought about being "Hellenized." Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC. The use of the Greek term synagogue (assembly) for a Jewish congregation or place of worship is a continuing witness to Hellenization. Judaism views the physical body as a partner with the soul. Some Jewish practices were considered strange at best by the Gentile majority, and perhaps even dangerous to the health and prosperity of the city. According to the Palestinian Talmud (the annotations and interpretations of the Oral Law compiled by Palestinian Jewish scholars in the 3rd and 4th centuries ce), there were 24 types of “heretics” in Palestine in 70 ce, thus indicating much divergence among Jews; this picture is confirmed by Josephus, who notes numerous instances of religious leaders who claimed to be prophets and who obtained considerable followings. Tarquinius. As Greek influence spread, Hellenization even reached the Balkans, the Middle East, Central Asia, and parts of modern India and Pakistan. It is not until the end of the 4th century, however, that Jews are first mentioned by Greek writers, who praise them as brave, self-disciplined, and philosophical. Like the later so-called Qumrān covenanters (the monastic group associated with the Dead Sea Scrolls), they were opposed to the Jewish priesthood and the cult of the Temple, regarded Moses as a messianic figure, and forbade the revelation of esoteric doctrines to outsiders. Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion, and, to a lesser extent, language over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC. We use cookies to improve your experience on our site and bring you ads that might interest you. His son and especially his grandsons became ardent Hellenists. What the Bible says about Hellenization (From Forerunner Commentary) Daniel 8:9-14 Daniel's prophecy describes the reign of one of the later Syrian kings, Antiochus IV, surnamed Epiphanes ("the manifest" or "the illustrious"). For them Judaism centred on the Temple; but, about 10 years before the Temple’s destruction in 70 ce, the Pharisees prevented the Sadducees from entering it, and in effect the Sadducees disappeared from Jewish life. Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe the spread of ancient Greek culture, and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greece or in its sphere of influence.It is mainly used to describe the spread of Hellenistic civilization during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great of Macedon. Again, there was a superficial Hellenization in the frequent adoption of Greek names, even by the rabbis; and there is evidence (Talmud, Soṭa [a tractate in the Mishna]) of a school at the beginning of the 2nd century ce that had 500 students of “Greek wisdom.” At the end of the 2nd century, long after the rabbis prohibited the people from teaching their sons Greek (117), Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi (135–220), the editor of the Mishna, the authoritative compilation of the Oral Law, could still remark, “Why talk Syriac in Palestine? Some modern scholars have sought to interpret the Pharisees’ opposition to the Sadducees—wealthy, conservative Jews who accepted the Torah alone as authoritative—as based on an urban-rural dichotomy, but a very large share of Pharisaic concern was with agricultural matters. to the 2nd century a.d. See more. Many of the anecdotes told about the rabbis have Socratic and Cynic parallels. 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