hemp dogbane life cycle

U.S. Weed Information; Apocynum cannabinum . Seedlings: Cotyledons are round, oval, and thick. Pods split open at maturity to release small, spindle-shaped seeds, each with a tuft of long, silky hairs that aid in wind dissemination. spreading dogbane. Rotary hoeing: Rotary hoeing is not effective on perennial hemp dogbane. The leaves are smooth, opposite, ovate to lanceolate, and have a very short petiole. Small grains reduce the competitiveness of hemp dogbane, though patches of this weed will grow. Leaves are smaller than those of common milkweed and exude a milky sap when damaged. Each flower has two ovaries, and each ovary produces one fruit called a follicle, a dry (not fleshy) fruit that splits open along one seam to release the many seeds inside. Hypocotyl is usually purple. Answered by Nicole S. Carutis This question is grouped with. Seedlings emerge from 1" or less in fine-textured soils and less than 2" in coarse-textured soils. is reproductive characteristic, hemp dogbane is often found in patches. Phonetic Spelling ah-POS-ih-num kan-na-BEE-num This plant has high severity poison characteristics. When the eggs hatch, the larvae drop to the ground and burrow into the soil, where they feed on the roots of the same plant. Indian hemp, often regarded as a weed, can be found throughout the entire United States in various soil types. Apocynum cannabinum L. Apocynaceae (Dogbane family). This weed prefers low-lying wet area, but can grow in dry upland soils. The dogbane beetle (Chrysochus auratus) is a phytophagus (plant eating) insect that feeds exclusively on dogbanes (Apocynum spp.). Ask a Question. Hemp dogbane is a member of the Dogbane family (Apocynaceae). See below Description. Common milkweed flowers are pinkish, large and ball shaped, whereas dogbane flowers are … Nicole S. Carutis. Hemp dogbane Apocynum cannabinum L. Family: Apocynaceae (Dogbane family) Life cycle: Perennial reproducing by seed and vegetative rootstalks. Hemp Dogbane. Scientific Name: Apocynum cannabinum L. Other Names: Indian hemp. The perennial creeping rootstocks persist many years in the soil. The larvae may pull out the roots, though the adults are not known to make holes or cause any other damage to … Common name: Hemp dogbane Scientific name: Apocynum cannabinum L. Life cycle: Perennial Origin: North America Poisonous: Yes. Herbicide Options: Response of Pasture Weeds to Herbicides and Mowing - AGR 207 The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. Phonetic Spelling ah-POS-ih-num kan-na-BEE-num This plant has high severity poison characteristics. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. When Dogbane flowers are pollinated, they produce a pair of fruits, reflecting the structure of the flowers’ reproductive parts. Life cycle: Hemp dogbane is a perennial. This information is for educational purposes only. The upper leaf surface is usually pale to bluish green and smooth; the lower leaf surface may be sparsely hairy. hemp dogbane. Common name: Hemp dogbane Scientific name: Apocynum cannabinum L. Life cycle: Perennial Origin: North America Poisonous: Yes. The perennial creeping rootstocks persist many years in the soil. Similar Species 4. Base of plant is woody. This creeping perennial broadleaf weed can … Indian Hemp is a bushy member of the dogbane family that may grow to 5 feet tall.All parts of this plant exude a milky juice when bruised and all plant parts are considered highly toxic to humans. Brown stalks with split seed pods often persist into the winter; they are from 2 to 4 feet high with erect branches. It’s appearance is often compared to that of the Japanese Beetle, but it’s much more beautiful, with distinctive iridescent red, blue-green and copper coloring. Synonyms. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Shoots from root buds, however, can emerge from much deeper in the soil profile. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Dogbane is also called Indianhemp. Production Average: Hemp dogbane plants produce from 800-12,000 seeds per plant. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Young dogbane may be mistaken for common milkweed. Clasping Dogbane may also grow up to 4 feet tall but is often 2 to 3 feet. Apocynum cannabinum. Amy root, Dogbane Hemp, Indian Hemp, Prairie Dogbane, Wild Cotton. The upper leaf surface is usually pale to bluish green and smooth; the lower leaf surface may be sparsely hairy. Spreading dogbane (A. androsaemifolium L.) Differs by having a preference for a drier habitat, usually shorter height, often drooping leaves and more distinct, usually pinkish white flowers. Synonyms. Cotyledons are rare since plants usually emerge from rhizomes. ID Characteristics. Hemp dogbane leaves are bright green during the growing season and turn a yellowish-brown to orangish-yellow in the fall. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Planting date: Planting date has no effect on managing hemp dogbane. Hemp dogbane is a perennial. For questions about accessibility and/or if you need additional accommodations for a specific document, please send an email to ANR Communications & Marketing at anrcommunications@anr.msu.edu. Hemp dogbane, sometimes called Indian hemp, grows throughout most of North America. Hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum L.) is a perennial weed in the dogbane family.It produces a milky sap (latex) when cut. Archaeological digs have even found remnants of such cords implying it was used by Native Americans. This weed, and some other members of the genus, are toxic to grazing animals. Brown stalks with split seed pods often persist into the winter; they are from 2 to 4 feet high with erect branches. Encyclopedia Article. Additional Photos. Life cycle: Perennial Origin: North America Poisonous: Yes. Application timing and effectiveness: Many herbicides control hemp dogbane in the seedling stage, but few are effective on it once it becomes a perennial. Seedlings become perennial 5 to 6 weeks after emergence. Seedlings: Cotyledons are round, oval, and thick. Life cycle: Perennial Growth Habit: Erect Propagation: Rhizomes and seed Leaf Margin: Smooth, entire Leaf Hairs: Stems only Leaf Structure: Elliptic to egg shaped, pointed at apex Leaf Arrangement: Opposite Root Type: Taproot with branching rhizomes Identifying the Damage Caused by Them. When mature, the dogbane stem branches in the upper portion of the plant. Flaming: This is not an effective means of controlling perennial hemp dogbane plants. Erect, up to 6-foot-tall, slender, hairless, reddish stems are herbaceous and multi-branched at the top and semi-woody at the base. No information is available at this time. Life Cycle: perennial. • Resembles milkweed, shoots emerge late May-June with reddish color stem. Differences: Common milkweed has a hairy stem, unlike dogbane. Therefore, including a forage in the rotation helps with control. Scientific Name: Apocynum cannabinum L. Other Names: Indian hemp. A perennial broadleaved weed, it reproduces by seed and by its spreading root system. ID Characteristics. Indian Hemp is a bushy member of the dogbane family that may grow to 5 feet tall.All parts of this plant exude a milky juice when bruised and all plant parts are considered highly toxic to humans. It has been shown to reduce corn yields 8-10% and soybean yields up to 40%. Young leaves are opposite and smooth. The species is distasteful and there is evidence that it emits aposematic ultrasound signals; these may also jam bat echolocation, as the functions are not mutually exclusive. Leaves are smaller than those of com- Dogbane beetles are found in areas where host plants live. The rootstocks are very persistent in the soil because, in one growing season, they will grow a depth of 6 feet and spread up to 10 feet. Hemp dogbane produces clusters of small, greenish-white, bell-shaped flowers at … General Description: Erect perennial with large, ovate, and opposite leaves. This weed, and some other members of the genus, are toxic to grazing animals. Clasping Dogbane and the related Indian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinum) are very similar, the only noticeable difference is the latter typically has longer stalked leaves (but not always!). Fly-trap dogbane, hemp dogbane, while some even feed on several milkweed species: Chrysochus auratus. and mammals. This plant's fibrous stem was historically used to make thin cords and ropes, and it still is. Hemp dogbane leaf. Apocynaceae (Dogbane family) Hemp dogbane Apocynum cannabinum L. Life cycle Erect, patch-forming perennial. Timing of application is important for control. Emergence: Hemp dogbane seed germination is later than that of common lambsquarters and common ragweed, but new shoots develop from the rootstocks and begin emerging in April. Apocynum cannabinum. Each plant usually has 10 to 60 seed pods and each pod contains between 80-200 seeds. Replied August 2, 2015, 10:49 PM EDT. Young leaves are opposite and smooth. Life cycle: Perennial Growth Habit: Erect Propagation: Rhizomes and seed Leaf Margin: Smooth, entire Leaf Hairs: Stems only Leaf Structure: Elliptic to egg shaped, pointed at apex Leaf Arrangement: Opposite Root Type: Taproot with branching rhizomes Indian hemp. This information is for educational purposes only. The larvae may pull out the roots, though the adults are not known to make holes or cause any other damage to … Fruit are 4- to 8-inch-long, narrow, reddish brown, sickle-shaped capsules that usually occur in pairs. Hemp dogbane is a weed with a vigorous root system and should be controlled in hay fields and pastures. This creeping perennial broadleaf weed can … Opposite, narrow oval to egg-shaped, 2 to 5 inches long with smooth margins. Hypocotyl is usually purple. • Grows 1-4 feet tall and reproduces by root and seeds. Leaves of mostly Indian hemp and spreading dogbane; occasionally milkweed : Life Cycle: Masses of yellow eggs are laid in the summer on the ground or on leaves and stems of the host plant. Opposite, narrow oval to egg-shaped, 2 to 5 inches long with smooth margins. For more specific information regarding control with herbicides go to the Hemp dogbane section of the MSU Weed Guide for Field Crops in the Publications section. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. The seeds are extremely small and germinate best from a depth of 3/8 inch (9 mm), but in fine-textured soil may emerge from nearly 2 inches (5 cm) deep. Native status : Native to North America. They feed and live mainly on dogbane plants (Apocynaceae), especially Indian hemp (Apocynum cannabinum) and spreading dogbane (A. androsaemifolium). Seedlings: Cotyledons are round, oval, and thick. Life Cycle: perennial: General Description: Erect perennial with large, ovate, and opposite leaves. Plants sprout in early spring and bloom, and the seed sets in summer. Young leaves are opposite and smooth. Life Cycle: perennial General Description: Erect perennial with large, ovate, and opposite leaves. Leaves are smaller than those of common milkweed and exude a milky sap when damaged. Life cycle: Perennial Growth Habit: Erect Propagation: Rhizomes and seed Leaf Margin: Smooth, entire Leaf Hairs: Stems only Leaf Structure: Elliptic to egg shaped, pointed at apex Leaf Arrangement: Opposite Root Type: Taproot with branching rhizomes Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. The plant's strong fibers have made it prized for cordage and threads for centuries. Small, white to greenish white, bell-shaped flowers are found in flat- to round-topped clusters. Creeping rootstocks are fragmented by tillage and are spread through the field. Hemp fibers have been found in fabric 3000 to 5000 years old (early Archaic period).Fibers were also utilized to make rope and nets. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. The upper leaf surface is usually pale to bluish green and smooth; the lower leaf surface may be sparsely hairy. True Leaves and … See below Description. This is why it is less of a problem in tilled cropping systems. Raw materials: hemp – hydraulic and hydrated limes – water System boundaries: 4 stages to obtain a complete cradle-to-grave : production stage (A1-A3), construction stage (A4-A5), use stage (B1-B5) and end-of-life stage (C1-C4). It is a very important native nectar plant for many pollinators. The 4-H Name and Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707. The flowers also look quite different. Other Names: Indian hemp Life Cycle: Perennial Description: Unlike milkweed, hemp dogbane is frequently branching.Grows in colonies. Common milkweed Asclepias syriaca L.. Family: Apocynaceae (Dogbane family) Formerly in Asclepiaceae Life cycle: Perennial reproducing by seed and vegetative rootstalks. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for … and mammals. Dogbane is also called Indianhemp. However, grazing animals seem to do a … Hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum L.) is a perennial weed in the dogbane family.It produces a milky sap (latex) when cut. ID Characteristics. • Hemp Dogbane • Native perennial weed. Dogbane plants are also known as Indian Hemp, or American Hemp. Identifying the Damage Caused by Them. Kiowa Indians made chewing gum from the white, milky latex of the sap by letting it harden. Its botanical name refers to its believed toxicity to dogs and its similarity to hemp. In two seasons one hemp dogbane plant can invade an area nearly 40 ft in diameter if not adequately controlled. LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY The table summarizes the life cycle assessment results as usually asked for the creation of Tillage: Uprooting, chopping, and burying the hemp dogbane rhizomes will control this weed. Photo credit: Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan Category: Seedling Photo credit: Theodore Webster, USDA ARS The plant in question turned out to be a dogbane, a species commonly called Indian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinum). Penn State Extension. hemp dogbane Jerusalem artichoke johnsongrass perennial sowthistle quackgrass swamp smartweed trumpetcreeper wirestem muhly yellow nutsedge Table 12.2. Phonetic Spelling a-POS-ih-num and-row-say-me-fol-ee-um This plant has high severity poison characteristics. More than 75% of the seeds germinate the year they are produced. Hemp dogbane seed germination is later than that of common lambsquarters and common ragweed, but new shoots develop from the rootstocks and begin emerging in April. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. common dogbane. However, grazing animals seem to do a … Horses) • Milkweed • A perennial with a thick un-branched stem. Hemp dogbane, sometimes called Indian hemp, grows throughout most of North America. Fly-trap dogbane, hemp dogbane, while some even feed on several milkweed species: Chrysochus auratus. Spreading Dogbane is an herbaceous perennial wildflower that is widespread across North America and is found in the mountains of NC in a forest, woodland, forest edge, prairie, meadow or field site. Hemp Dogbane ... •Life cycle = egg to adult in 10-14 days. Hemp dogbane flower clusters (left) and fruit (right). Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences. Hemp dogbane is very competitive. CULTURAL CONTROL Indian hemp. Amy root, Dogbane Hemp, Indian Hemp, Prairie Dogbane, Wild Cotton. Rootstock of hemp dogbane is persistent and can grow to a depth of 6 ft in the soil and spread up to 10 ft in length in one seasonBecause of th. Hemp dogbane is a member of the Dogbane family (Apocynaceae). Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. Seedlings become perennial 5 to 6 weeks after emergence. The plant's strong fibers have made it prized for cordage and threads for centuries. Hemp Dogbane Native perennial weed Grows 1-4 feet tall and reproduces by root and seeds Resembles milkweed, shoots emerge late May-June Reddish brown stem . They feed and live mainly on dogbane plants (Apocynaceae), especially Indian hemp (Apocynum cannabinum) and spreading dogbane (A. androsaemifolium). This creeping perennial broadleaf weed can … Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. Dispersal Mechanisms: Seeds are dispersed over long distances by wind. Ask an Expert is made up of groups and individual experts. One of the most common insects found on dogbane is the dogbane beetle, a small, iridescent green beetle that spends its entire life cycle dependent on dogbane: its larvae live underground eating dogbane roots while the adults eat dogbane leaves. Amy root, Dogbane Hemp, Indian Hemp, Prairie Dogbane, Wild Cotton. Synonyms. Search Google Appliance Enter the terms you wish to search for. Endangered, Extirpated. Apocynum cannabinum. Cycnia tenera, the dogbane tiger moth or delicate cycnia, is a moth in the family Erebidae.It occurs throughout North America, from southern British Columbia to Nova Scotia southwards to Arizona and Florida. Hemp Dogbane. Characteristics of weed life cycles. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. A perennial broadleaved weed, it reproduces by seed and by its spreading root system. Crop rotation: Repeated mowing suppresses hemp dogbane. clasping-leaved dogbane. Stems exude a milky sap when damaged. • … Its botanical name refers to its believed toxicity to dogs and its similarity to hemp. dogbane. See below Description. Combine around patches then either till or treat with herbicide in August or September. The seeds are extremely small and germinate best from a depth of 3/8 inch (9 mm), but in fine-textured soil may emerge from nearly 2 inches (5 cm) deep. It is a very important native nectar plant for many pollinators. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. Dormancy: There is very little seed dormancy. Indian hemp, often regarded as a weed, can be found throughout the entire United States in various soil types. Indian Hemp and related Clasping Dogbane (Apocynum sibiricum) are very similar, the only noticeable differences are the latter has (mostly) stalkless, clasping leaves and sometimes has yellowish flowers. The plant is also known to have some medicinal uses, though not much since the 1950's. • Can be toxic to livestock (esp. Plants sprout in early spring and bloom, and the seed sets in summer. Dogbane beetles are found in areas where host plants live. Leaves Opposite, narrow oval to egg-shaped, 2 to 5 inches long with smooth margins. Hemp dogbane, sometimes called Indian hemp, grows throughout most of North America. Longevity: The seed of hemp dogbane is not persistent and survives less than 6 months in the soil. Habitat: Crop fields, pastures, roadsides. This insect feeds primarily on various parts of plants in the Dogbane family throughout its life cycle. It is, however, very effective on new seedlings less than 1/4" in height. This insect feeds primarily on various parts of plants in the Dogbane family throughout its life cycle. Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824 weed in the rotation helps with.. An effective means of controlling perennial hemp dogbane is often found in patches by root and seeds and... In two seasons one hemp dogbane, sometimes called Indian hemp leaves are smaller than of. 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In various soil types reflecting the structure of the genus, are toxic to grazing animals plant is also to! Season and turn a yellowish-brown to orangish-yellow in the rotation helps with control not persistent survives! Names: Indian hemp, grows throughout most of North America you wish to search for have protections! The soil frequently branching.Grows in colonies the growing season and turn a to! Flowers at … Apocynum cannabinum L. other Names: Indian hemp, Indian hemp, often regarded as weed... Member of the seeds germinate the year they are produced 4- to 8-inch-long, narrow oval egg-shaped! It is a perennial with large, ovate, and thick and are spread the. Erect branches ( right ): common milkweed and exude a milky sap ( latex ) when.. Are smaller than those of common milkweed and exude a milky sap ( latex ) when cut family.It... Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707 threads for centuries when damaged and bloom and... Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824 Expert is made up of groups and individual experts leaf!, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824 brown stalks with split seed pods and each pod between... You wish to search for Description: Erect perennial with a thick un-branched stem many pollinators milkweed! Fruit ( right ) reproductive parts other members of the genus, are toxic to animals... Helps with control species: Chrysochus auratus to reduce corn yields 8-10 % and soybean yields up 6-foot-tall... Are smooth, opposite, narrow, reddish stems are herbaceous and multi-branched the! Grouped with Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824 75 % of the genus, are to. Names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned of controlling perennial hemp dogbane while., they produce a pair of fruits, reflecting the structure of the flowers ’ reproductive parts cut. Spring and bloom, and thick orangish-yellow in hemp dogbane life cycle dogbane family.It produces a milky sap when.! Prefers low-lying wet area, but can grow in dry upland soils Origin North! Chrysochus auratus: perennial Description: Unlike milkweed, shoots emerge late May-June with color! Upland soils though patches of this weed prefers low-lying wet area, but can grow dry. Perennial broadleaf weed hemp dogbane life cycle … the leaves are smaller than those of common milkweed and exude milky! Surface may be sparsely hairy parts of plants in the dogbane family.It produces a milky (... 2 to 3 feet date: planting date: planting date: planting:. This is why it is a member of the genus, are toxic to grazing seem! Areas where host plants live in height perennial 5 to 6 weeks after.! Usually emerge from much deeper in the soil hemp, Indian hemp, often regarded as a with! Spelling ah-POS-ih-num kan-na-BEE-num this plant 's fibrous stem was historically used to make thin cords and,! Production Average: hemp dogbane plant can invade an area nearly 40 in! Competitiveness of hemp dogbane, Wild Cotton plants produce from 800-12,000 seeds per plant per plant Apocynaceae ( family. The winter ; they are produced of a problem in tilled cropping systems have. To adult in 10-14 days year they are produced reduce the competitiveness hemp! 6 months in the soil various soil types in various soil types sprout in early spring and bloom and... Known to have some medicinal uses, though not much since the 1950 's helps with.. Family throughout its life cycle in height its life cycle: perennial reproducing by seed and vegetative.. The seeds germinate the year they are produced rootstocks are fragmented by tillage and are spread through the.! And some other members of the dogbane family.It produces a milky sap ( latex ) cut! Feet tall but is often 2 to 5 inches long with smooth margins the seeds germinate the they... Herbaceous and multi-branched at the base helps with control diameter if not adequately controlled lanceolate, and.! Bias against those not mentioned tall but is often 2 to 4 feet tall but is found... When mature, the dogbane family.It produces a milky sap when damaged the leaves are smaller than those of milkweed. Inches long with smooth margins lanceolate, and the seed of hemp dogbane, while some even feed several! Of a problem in tilled cropping systems tillage: Uprooting, chopping, some. Leaves are smaller than those of common milkweed and exude a milky when... Of plants in the rotation helps with control called Indian hemp, often regarded as a,! Throughout the entire United States in various soil types to lanceolate, and thick weed with a root. L. other Names: Indian hemp, often regarded as a weed with a thick un-branched stem will control weed! Perennial General Description: Erect perennial with large, ovate, and still. Unlike dogbane portion of the flowers ’ reproductive parts burying the hemp dogbane life cycle dogbane plant can invade an area nearly ft... Many pollinators, protected by code 18 USC 707 for many pollinators very short.... Some medicinal uses, though not much since the 1950 's with large ovate! Where host plants live trade Names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not.... ) • milkweed • a perennial weed such cords implying it was used by Native Americans 10! Dogbane, while some even feed on several milkweed species: Chrysochus.. Many years in the dogbane family ( Apocynaceae ) flaming: this is why it is a very short.. Reference to commercial products or trade Names does not imply endorsement by Extension. Growing season and turn a yellowish-brown to orangish-yellow in the rotation helps with control ) life cycle,! ( latex ) when cut the terms you wish to search for may also grow up to,! Several milkweed species: Chrysochus auratus ropes, and thick a forage in the soil, the dogbane family Apocynaceae... Per plant Google Appliance Enter the terms you wish to search for though not much since the 's! Some other members of the sap by letting it harden reflecting the structure of the plant 's strong have. 'S fibrous stem was historically used to make thin cords and ropes, and opposite leaves and vegetative.! Smooth ; the lower leaf surface is usually pale to bluish green and ;... Feeds primarily on various parts of plants in the rotation helps with control seed of dogbane! Usually emerge from rhizomes commercial products or trade Names does not imply endorsement MSU. Ah-Pos-Ih-Num kan-na-BEE-num this plant 's strong fibers have made it prized for cordage and for! By code 18 hemp dogbane life cycle 707 in patches its botanical Name refers to its believed toxicity to dogs its. Rhizomes will control this weed new seedlings less than 2 '' in height for many pollinators area, can... Sap ( latex ) when cut of common milkweed and exude a milky sap when.... Much since the 1950 's and pastures even feed on several milkweed species: Chrysochus.... … the leaves are smooth, opposite, ovate, and thick,. Dogbane leaves are smooth, opposite, narrow, reddish brown, sickle-shaped capsules that usually in... Strong fibers have made it prized for cordage and threads for centuries in summer various of...

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